Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (CBDRRM) is a process of disaster risk reduction and management in which at-risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring, and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities.
This means the people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster risk reduction and management activities. The involvement of the most vulnerable is paramount and the support of the least vulnerable is necessary. In CBDRRM, the local and national governments are also involved and supportive.
CBDRRM aims to create resilient people living within resilient communities within resilient environments within resilient countries. This is achieved by reducing the:
1. Probability of failure through risk reduction measures;
2. Consequences of failure, in terms of fewer lives lost, fewer injuries and reduced direct and indirect damage;
3. Time needed for recovery; and the
4. Patterns of vulnerability that can develop during the process of reconstruction.
The Nature of Resilient Communities
A resilient community is one that has certain capacities in three phases:
. The ability to absorb the shocks of hazard impact, so that they do not become disasters (thus to reduce the probability of failure);
Phase 2. The capacity to bounce back during and after disaster (thus to reduce the consequences of failure); and
Phase 3 . The opportunity for change and adaptation following a disaster (thus to reduce the time needed for recovery as well as patterns of vulnerability).
Indicators of a Resilient Community
Resilience is a moving target, and realistically it may not be possible for communities to achieve absolute resilience against hazards or other risk factors. However, communities can still achieve certain level of development, and they can establish institutional arrangements that would enhance their resilience. In order to assess whether a community has achieved a certain level of resilience, we will need to establish some indicators, which if existed would mean that the community had achieved a minimum level of resiliency. A set of indicators is given below. This set of indicators is by no means comprehensive. You might like to identify more indicators relevant to your local area and community.
• A Community organization;
• A Disaster Risk Reduction and Disaster Preparedness plan;
• A Community Early Warning System;
• Trained manpower: risk assessment, search and rescue, medical ﬁrst aid, relief distribution, masons for safer house construction, ﬁre ﬁghting, etc.
• Physical Connectivity: roads, electricity, telephone, clinics;
• Relational connectivity with local authorities, NGOs, etc.
• Knowledge of risks and risk reduction actions;
• A Community Disaster Reduction Fund to implement risk reduction activities;
• Safer House to withstand local hazards; and
• Safe source/s of livelihoods